Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors, in particular, Ae. aegypti. Ae. Albopictus is another potential vector. Since the competent mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries, introduction of the virus to these areas could readily result in endemic transmission of the disease.
The mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), originally indigenous to South-east Asia, islands of the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean, has spread during recent decades to Africa, the mid-east, Europe and the Americas (north and south) after extending its range eastwards across Pacific islands during the early 20th century. Among public health authorities in the newly infested countries and those threatened with the introduction, there has been much concern that Ae. albopictus would lead to serious outbreaks of arbovirus diseases (Ae. albopictus is a competent vector for at least 22 arboviruses).
Aedes aegypti was eradicated from most of the countries of the Americas during the 1960s under the aegis of a vertical and relatively well funded eradication campaign backed by a high degree of political and community will. But, it has been reinfested. With the invasion of Ae. albopictus, both Stegomyia infestations are now common in both urban and rural areas. The best approach to control vector will be to improve mosquito abatement capabilities in urban areas and attempt to reduce vector densities to a level at which disease transmission is unlikely.
Ae. aegypti is an intriguing example of a vector species that not only occurs in the southernmost portions of the eastern United States today but also is incriminated as the likely primary vector in historical outbreaks of yellow fever as far north as New York, Philadelphia, and Boston, from the 1690s to the 1820s. It is tempting to speculate that climate warming may result in a northward range expansion.
There is no doubt that climate conditions directly impact many aspects of the life history of Ae. aegypti, this mosquito also is closely linked to the human environment and directly influenced by the availability of water-holding containers for oviposition and larval development. Competition with other container-inhabiting mosquito species, particularly Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), also may impact the presence and local abundance of Ae. aegypti.
1,N. G. GRATZ.Critical review of the vector status of Aedes albopictus. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 18, 215–227.
2, LARS EISEN. Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti in the Continental United States: A Vector at the Cool Margin of Its Geographic Range. J. Med. Entomol. 50(3): 467Ð478 (2013)
Zika virus and cytokines
Zika virus and host receptors
What is Zika virus
What is Zika virus disease
Zika virus virology
Zika virus serologic properties
Zika virus symptoms
Zika virus transmission
Zika virus treatment
Zika virus prevention
Zika virus vaccines
Zika virus diagnosis
Zika virus vector
Zika virus genome
Zika virus nucleotide
Zika virus geographic expansion
Zika virus epidemic
Zika virus outside Africa