Lung Cancer Biomarkers

Candidate lung cancer biomarker

Protein Names Clinical Markers Human Swiss Prot # Comments Quality Products
Adrenomedullin yes P35318 Adrenomedullin is a hypotensive peptide increased in gastrointestinal tract and lung cancer (Ehlenz et al. 1997). Adrenomedullin / ADM
B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2   P10415 An inhibitor of apoptosis Bcl-2 maintains homeostasis in the immune system The differing effects of Bcl-2 expression on prognosis may be due to which cells are expressing the Bcl-2, immune cells or tumors. High expression in ovarian cancer (Herod et al. 1996) and non small lung cancer (Shibata et al. 2004) are associated with better prognosis whereas well differentiated tumors more likely to be Bcl-2 positive (Soda et al. 1999). BCL2 / Bcl-2
Cathepsin B   P07858 A major cysteine protease involved in antigen degradation, it is overexpressed in tumors of the lung, prostate, colon, breast, stomach and esopha- geal adenocarcinoma (Hughes et al. 1998). Cathepsin B
Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, PECAM-1   P16284 Involved in transendothelial migration of leukocytes, angiogenesis, and integrin activation; it is underexpressed in adenocarinomas of the lung (McDoniels-Silvers et al. 2002) but decreased in patients with recurrent basal cell carcinoma (Yerebakan et al. 2003). CD31/PECAM-1
Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 5, CD154   P29965 CD154 is a B cell stimulator increased in lung cancer (Roselli et al. 2004). CD40L/CD154/TNFSF5
Lactotransferrin   P02788 An iron-binding protein that modulates iron metabolism, hematopoiesis, and immunologic reactions. It is increased in gastrointestinal, lung and breast cancer patients (Vasil'ev and Avdeev 1985). Lactotransferrin/LTF
Gamma enolase   P09104 Neuron specific enolase, a glycolytic enzyme, is released into the CSF when neural tissue is injured. Neoplasms derived from neural or neuro-endocrine tissue may release NSE into the blood. Elevated levels are found in seminomas (Fossa et al. 1992), advanced non-small cell lung cancer (Barlesi et al. 2004), solid malignant tumors and malignant hematologic disorders (Burghuber et al. 1990). NSE / ENO2 / Enolase 2
Secreted phosphoprotein 1, osteopontin   P10451 An extracellular matrix protein of pleiotropic properties including inflammation modulator, it is increased in prostate, colon, breast and lung cancer (Fedarko et al. 2001). Osteopontin/SPP1/ETA-1
Cellular tumor antigen p53   P04637 The p53 tumor suppressor protein regulates proliferation, cell cycle checkpoints, and apoptosis. More than one half of all lung cancers contain a mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene (Johnson and Kelley 1993). p53/TP53
Parathyroid Hormone   P01270 Stimulates bone formation A correlation between tumor activity and ACTH, CT and PTH levels was shown in 50.44 and 47% of lung cancer patients respectively (Ausekar et al. 1985). PTH / PTH1 / Parathyroid Hormone
Parathyroid hormone-related protein yes P12272 A critical regulator of cellular and organ growth, development, migration, differentiation and survival and of epithelial calcium ion transport; parathyroid hormone-related protein is found in the serum of bone metastases (Iguchi et al. 2004), lung cancer (Nishigaki et al. 1999) patients and a multiple myeloma patient (Kitazawa et al. 2002). PTHLH
Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1   P29508 A member of the ovalbumin family of serine proteinase inhibitors, it serves as a serologic marker for advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix, lung, esophagus, head and neck and vulva. Recent molecular studies show that SCCA is transcribed by two nearly identical genes (SCCA1 and SCCA2) that encode for members of the high molecular weight serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) family (Cataltepe et al. 2000). SERPINB3 / SCCA-1
Plasminogen (Contains Angiostatin)   P00747 The precursor to angiostatin, a potent angiogenesis inhibitor, it is increased in patients with malignant neoplasm of stomach, colon, lung, bladder, breast. renal pelvis, and prostate but decreased in patients with malignant neoplasm of biliary tree, pancrease, cervix uteri, kidney except pelvis, and thyroid (Chang Kyou et al. 2004). tPA
Trypsin   P07477 A hydrolytic enzyme whose activity was significantly lower in hepatocellular cancer tissue (Niewczas et al. 2002) but not altered in pancreatic, stomach, colon, rectal, lung or breast adenocarcinomas. Trypsin 2 / PRSS2
Trypsin   P07477 A hydrolytic enzyme whose activity was significantly lower in hepatocellular cancer tissue (Niewczas et al. 2002) but not altered in pancreatic, stomach, colon, rectal, lung or breast adenocarcinomas. Trypsin 2/PRSS2
Antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67   P46013 A proliferation-associated antigen that is increased in small cell lung cancer patients (Grefte et al. 2004).  
Chromogranin A (parathyroid secretory protein 1) yes P10645 A neuroendocrine secretory protein secreted by tumours with neuroendocrine properties. The assay is used primarily in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with tumours of neuroendocrine origin. Increased levels in small cell lung cancer patients are associated with shorter survival (Pujol et al. 2003).  
Haptoglobin-1   P00738 It binds hemoglobin and is increased in conditions with extensive tissue damage and necrosis. It is increased in leukemia patients (Kwak et al. 2004). High levels in small cell lung cancer are associated with decreased survival (Bharti et al. 2004).  
Mammaglobin B   O75556 Mammaglobin B may bind androgens and other steroids, it shows high sequence similarity to mammaglobin. Frequently upregulated in lung tumors (Sjodin et al. 2003).  
Placental specific tissue protein 12   x A soluble tissue antigen of the placenta, it is increased in lung cancer (Briese et al. 1986).  
Somatostatin yes P61278 Somatostatin inhibits secretion of growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, gastrin , cholecystokinin, secretin and vasoactive intestinal peptide among others. It has been detected in the sera of 14–15% of lung cancer patients although tumor cell expression appears rare (O'Byrne et al. 2001).  

Lung cancer biomarker background

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, accounting for ~1.4 million deaths/yr worldwide (WHO, 2007) and ~160,000 deaths/yr in the United States, which is ~25-30% of all U.S. cancer deaths and more than the next three cancers (colon, prostate, breast) combined (ACS, 2009). Anyone can have lung cancer, regardless of age, race, or smoking history. But not all lung cancers are the same. Lung cancer tumors can have biomarkers for different cancer-causing mutations. Or they may have no lung cancer biomarkers at all. As research continues, more biomarkers are being discovered, each having the potential to open up treatment options that might not have existed previously.

Non-small cell lung cancer represents a group of heterogeneous diseases. The last decade witnessed significant progress in improving our understanding of the biology of non-small cell lung cancer, which led to the identification of several genetic targets. Those genetic targets were utilized to explain clinical phenomena, such as the occurrence of non-small cell lung cancer in never-smokers, to predict response to conventional chemotherapy and biological agents, and to explain and predict resistance to therapy. The progress in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in the last few years was based on a new generation of population-enriched clinical trials that utilized genetic lung cancer biomarkers such as somatic EGFR mutations and ALK-EML4 mutations.