Anti-idiotypic Antibodies Overview

Anti-idiotype Antibody Definition

What is anti-idiotype antibody? Anti-idotypic antibody is an antibody that binds to the idiotype of another antibody. An Idiotype (ID) actually consists of multiple antigenic determinants, each of which is an idiotope. The antigenic determinants or idiotopes can reside in the heavy chain component of the V region, in its light chain component, or they may consist of a surface made up of parts of both chains.

Anti-idiotype antibodies can be used as positive controls in anti-drug antibodies (ADA) assays. They are also powerful tools to perform immunogenicity and PK/PD analysis during the process of therapeutic antibody development.

Based on different binding modes and properties, anti-idiotype antibodies can be classified into three types. Type 1 anti-ID antibody is antigen blocking specific which binds to the paratope of the therapeutic antibody and competes with its target antigen. Therefore, this format of anti-ID antibody will only detect free antibody drug. Type 2 anti-ID antibody is non-blocking specific which binds near the paratope but still allows the antibody to bind its target antigen. It can be used to measure total drug (free or antigen bound). Type 3 anti-ID antibody is complex specific which only binds specifically the antibody-target complex but not the unbound antibody or the unbound target. This type of anti-ID antibody is only able to measure target bound drug.

Our scientists are able to develop these three anti-idiotype antibodies tailored your therapeutic antibodies. We are ready to Contact us for a discussion.

Types of anti-Idiotype Antibodies
Fig 1. Types of anti-Idiotype Antibodies

Applications of Anti-idiotype Antibodies

Immunogenicity assays

Immunogenicity assays are integral to biologic drug development. Biotherapeutics, such as proteins, antibodies, conjugated peptides or oligonucleotides can induce an immune response in the body, leading to the development of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs).

Anti-idiotypic antibodies are highly specialized ADAs. In most cases, polyclonal anti-idiotype antibodies are often used as positive controls when analyzing for the presence of ADAs within patient samples.

Rabbit pAbs are generated and purified for use in this assay. Several monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies could be mixed together to generate a polyclonal mixture to be used as a positive control in the ADA.

Pharmacokinetic (PK) assays

Anti-idiotype antibodies are most commonly used for pharmacokinetic (PK) assays. PK assays are used to inform dosing and toxicity at the preclinical and clinical stages of antibody drug functional assessment.

Owing to the use of anti-idiotype antibodies (mostly mAbs), it's easy to track and quantify various forms of antibody therapeutics in patient serum, urine, or other bodily fluids.

Custom Anti-idiotype Antibody Generation

As a leading provider of anti-idiotypic antibody development, Sino Biological offers various anti-idiotype antibody services to advance the drug development process. At Sino Biological, there are several packages for production of anti-idiotypic antibodies, which gives customers more options.  Anti-idiotype antibodies can be produced as polyclonal antibodies, hybridoma or recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

Service Timeline Pricing
Rabbit anti-ID pAb service 3-4 months
Mouse anti-ID mAb service 4-6 months
Rabbit anti-ID mAb service 4-6 months

References

1. Migliorini, P., & Schwartz, R. S. (1988). Anti-idiotypic antibodies in autoimmune diseases. Clinical and experimental rheumatology, 6(2), 145-150.
2. Shu, M., Xu, Y., Wang, D., Liu, X., Li, Y., He, Q., … Wang, X. (2015). Anti-idiotypic nanobody: A strategy for development of sensitive and green immunoassay for Fumonisin B₁. Talanta, 143, 388–393. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2015.05.010
3. Watts, R. A., & Isenberg, D. A. (1988). Idiotypes and anti-idiotypes: what are they trying to tell us?. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 47(9), 705.
4. Pineda, C., Hernández, G. C., Jacobs, I. A., Alvarez, D. F., & Carini, C. (2016). Assessing the immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals. BioDrugs, 30(3), 195-206.

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