The first major epidemic outside Africa occurred in Yap Island of the Federated States of Micronesia in 2007.
Another major epidemic occurred in the western Pacific islands of French Polynesia and New Caledonia in 2013-2014.
|Countries and territories||Population countries (Number)||Sporadic cases/epidemics||Seroprevalence survey||Comments|
|Number of cases(n)||Year||Percentage||Year|
|Australia||21,527,000||1||2013||–||–||Imported cases (ex–Thailand)|
|Cambodia||14,701,717||1||2010||–||–||Sporadic human cases|
|Ivory Coast||23,202,000||1||1999||–||–||Sporadic human cases Isolation in mosquitoes|
|Indonesia||244,968,342||1||2013||–||–||Exported cases in Australia in 2013|
|Malaysia||28,250,000||1||–||–||1969||Serologic study Isolation in mosquitoes|
|Micronesia, Yap||7391||185 including 108 confirmed and probable||2007||73% (in population)||2007||Epidemic Study seroprevalence in population|
|Nigeria||170,123,740||2||1975||31%||1968||Study serologic Isolation in mosquitoes sporadic human cases|
|New-Caledonia||254,000||114||2014||–||–||Autochthonous cases (Dumbea)|
|32||2013–2014||Imported cases (e.g. FP)|
|French Polynesia(FP)||268,270||8510 clinical cases 29,000 estimated cases (preliminary figures)||2013–2014||–||–||Epidemic|
ZIKV was reported in mosquitoes, primates, and humans in 14 countries over three continents (Africa, Asia, Oceania).
The virus had been the object of few published studies because of the frequency of pauci/asymptomatic presentations before 2013 and because there were no documented severe presentations. Some data is available from prevalence surveys. The prevalence was 6.1% in a standard population of 99 individuals in Uganda, in 1952. The virus was isolated twice in Nigeria, from samples collected in 10,778 febrile patients, between 1971 and 1975. The authors of a serological study of 130 Nigerian symptomatic patients, performed in 1979, reported that 52 (%) had neutralizing antibodies. The authors of a study conducted in Java (Indonesia), between 1977 and 1978, reported that out of 219 patients admitted to the Java island hospital emergency unit for fever, ZIKV prevalence was 7.1%. Sporadic cases were reported in travellers between 2007 and 2013 (Thailand,Cambodia, Indonesia).
The authors of a retrospective study conducted in 2014, demonstrating a Zika virus epidemic in Gabon in 2007, proved the difficulty of detecting this epidemic in areas of dengue and chikungunya virus circulation.
A Zika virus epidemic has been reported in FP since October 2013. This is the first time such a large epidemic has been described. Cases imported from FP were reported in New Caledonia and, since January 2014, autochthonous cases have been reported there. Cases imported from FP have also been reported in Japan, Norway, Easter Island, and continental France.
1, S. Ioos et al. / Médecine et maladies infectieuses 44 (2014) 302–307
2, Yap census; 2000 [consulté le 14 janvier 2014].
3, Duffy, et al. Zika virus outbreak on Yap Islands. Federated States of Micronesia. N Engl J Med 2009;360:24.
4, Marchette NJ, Garcia R, Rudnick A. Isolation of Zika virus from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Malaysia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1969;18:411–5.
5, Dick GWA. Epidemiological notes on some viruses isolated in Uganda: yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, Bwamba fever, West Nile, Mengo, Semliki Forest, Bunyamwera, Ntaya, Uganda S. and Zika viruses. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1953;47:13–43