Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV or ZEBOV) belongs to genus Ebola virus which has other four species including Sudan eoblavirus (SEBOV / SUDV); Taï Forest ebolavirus (formerly Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, CIEBOV / TAFV,) and Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV / BDBV), Reston ebolavirus (REBOV / RESTV).The Zaire ebolavirusis the most dangerous of the five Ebolavirus species which are the causative agents of Ebola virus disease. And Ebola virus (EBOV) is the type species of Ebolavirus. The virus causes an extremely severe It also causes Ebola virus disease / Ebola hemorrhagic fever in human and non-human primates. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a select agent, World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen.
The 2014 Ebola virus Outbreak is cause by Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV or ZEBOV) and is currently ongoing in West Africa, including Guinea (the country of origin) and the east, the capital, Conakry, and the neighboring countries of Sierra Leone and Liberia. Four cases have occurred in Nigeria, in travelers from infected areas, and subsequently in health care workers. This outbreak is the most severe in recorded history in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. The number of Ebola virus infection and death continues to grow.
Zaire ebolavirus was responsible for 2 outbreaks in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), in 1976 and 1995. The virus reemerged in DRC 12 years later, causing 2 successive outbreaks in the Luebo region, Kasai Occidental province, in 2007 and 2008. The first recognized Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) epidemic occurred at Yambuku in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1976. An isolated case was registered in Tandala, DRC, in 1977, succeeded by a 17-year epidemically silent period before the Mekouka outbreak in Gabon in 1994. Subsequently, Gabon experienced 2 epidemics in 1996 at Mayibout and Booue´ whereas DRC saw a reappearance of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) in 1995, at Kikwit. Between 2001 and 2005, the cross-border area between northeast Gabon and northwest Republic of Congo (Gabon-RC) was hit by 5 Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreaks: Mekambo 2001–2002 (Gabon), Mbomo–Kelle´ 2001–2002 (RC), Kelle´ 2003 (RC), Mbandza–Mbomo 2003 (RC), and Etoumbi 2005 (RC). Like the 1994–1996 Gabonese epidemics, these cross-border outbreaks were marked by large wildlife epizootics, inducing mortality rates of 80% in great apes. Chimpanzees, gorillas, and duikers were susceptible hosts responsible for viral introduction into human populations.