Chemokine receptors are 7-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, and include 18 members. Chemokine receptors express on different cell types and their binding and response to specific chemokines are highly variable. According to their binding to four distinct subfamilies of chemokines, chemokine receptors can be divided into four different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine receptors and XC chemokine receptors. Four families of chemokine receptors differ in spacing of cysteine residues near N-terminal of the receptor.
Chemokine receptors are members of cytokine receptors and have also recently been implicated in human cancers including those of the breast, lung, prostate, colon, and melanoma. Chemokine receptors may potentially facilitate tumor dissemination at several key steps of metastasis, including adherence of tumor cells to endothelium, extravasation from blood vessels, metastatic colonization, angiogenesis, proliferation, and protection from the host response via activation of key survival pathways such as phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and Akt.
Moreover, most fascinating has been the observation that chemokine receptors act as co-receptor in HIV type 1 infection. With the help of chemokine receptor CCR5 or CXCR4, HIV-1 binds CD4 and penetrates its nucleic acid into the host cell.
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|CCR1||CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL23|
|CCR2||CCL2, CCL7, CCL8, CCL12, CCL13|
|CCR3||CCL5, CCL7, CCL11, CCL13, CCL15, CCL24, CCL26, CCL28|
|CCR4||CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL17, CCL22|
|CCR5||CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL8|
|CCR8||CCL1, CCL4, CCL17|
|CCL27, CCL28||XCL1, XCL2|