Human HMGB1 HEK293 Overexpression Lysate: Product Information
This Human HMGB1 overexpression lysate was created in HEK293 Cells and intented for use as a Western blot (WB) positive control. Purification of HMGB1 protein (Cat: 10326-H08H) from the overexpression lysate was verified.
A DNA sequence encoding the human HMGB1 protein (NP_002119.1) (Met 1-Glu 215) was fused with a polyhistidine tag at the C-terminus and a signal peptide at the N-terminus.
The recombinant human HMGB1 consists of 226 amino acids and has a predicted molecular mass of 26.3 kDa. As a result of glycosylation, the apparent molecular mass of rhHMGB1 is approximately 30-34 kDa in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions.
Human HMGB1 HEK293 Overexpression Lysate: Usage Guide
Cell lysate was prepared by homogenization of the over-expressed cells in ice-cold modified RIPA Lysis Buffer with cocktail of protease inhibitors (Sigma). Cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined by Bradford assay (Bio-Rad protein assay, Microplate Standard assay). The cell lysate was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS loading buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 5% b-mercaptoethanol, and lyophilized.
1. Centrifuge the tube for a few seconds and ensure the pellet at the bottom of the tube.
2. Re-dissolve the pellet using 200μL pure water and boil for 2-5 min.
1 X Sample Buffer (1 X modified RIPA buffer+1 X SDS loading buffer).
Stability & Storage
Store at 4℃ for up to twelve months from date of receipt. After re-dissolution, aliquot and store at -80℃ for up to twelve months. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Western Blot (WB) Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Human HMGB1 HEK293 Overexpression Lysate: Alternative Names
Human HMG-1 Overexpression Lysate; Human HMG1 Overexpression Lysate; Human HMG3 Overexpression Lysate; Human SBP-1 Overexpression Lysate
HMGB1 Background Information
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), also known as HMG-1 or amphoterin previously, is a member of the HMGB family consisting of three members, HMGB1, HMGB2 and HMGB3. HMGB1 is a DNA-binding nuclear protein, released actively following cytokine stimulation as well as passively during cell death. It is the prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and has been implicated in several inflammatory disorders. HMGB1 signals via the receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) and members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family. The most prominent HMGB1 protein and mRNA expression arthritis is present in pannus regions, where synovial tissue invades articular cartilage and bone. HMGB1 promotes the activity of proteolytic enzymes, and osteoclasts need HMGB1 for functional maturation. As a non-histone nuclear protein, HMGB1 has a dual function. Inside the cell, HMGB1 binds DNA, regulating transcription and determining chromosomal architecture. Outside the cell, HMGB1 can serve as an alarmin to activate the innate system and mediate a wide range of physiological and pathological responses. Extracellular HMGB1 represents an optimal "necrotic marker" selected by the innate immune system to recognize tissue damage and initiate reparative responses. However, extracellular HMGB1 also acts as a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that contributes to the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory and infectious disorders. HMGB1 has been successfully therapeutically targeted in multiple preclinical models of infectious and sterile diseases including arthritis. As shown in studies on patients as well as animal models, HMGB1 can play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatic disease, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and polymyositis among others. In addition, enhanced postmyocardial infarction remodeling in type 1 diabetes mellitus was partially mediated by HMGB1 activation.
high mobility group box 1
Ulloa L, et al. (2006) High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein: friend and foe. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17 (3): 189-201.
Pisetsky DS, et al. (2008) High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1): an alarmin mediating the pathogenesis of rheumatic disease. Arthritis Res Ther. 10 (3): 209.
Volz HC, et al. (2010) The role of HMGB1/RAGE in inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Semin Thromb Hemost. 36(2): 185-94.
Sims GP, et al. (2010) HMGB1 and RAGE in inflammation and cancer. Annu Rev Immunol. 28: 367-88.
Andersson U, et al. (2010) The role of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of rheumatic disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1799 (1-2): 141-8.
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