Ephrin-A5 also known as EFNA5, is a member of the Ephrin family. The Eph family receptor interacting proteins (ephrins) are a family of proteins that serve as the ligands of the Eph receptor, which compose the largest known subfamily of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Ephrin subclasses are further distinguished by their mode of attachment to the plasma membrane: ephrin-A ligands bind EphA receptors and are anchored to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage, whereas ephrin-B ligands bind EphB receptors and are anchored via a transmembrane domain. Ephrin-A5/EFNA5 may function actively to stimulate axon fasciculation. The interaction of EFNA5 with EPHA5 also mediates communication between pancreatic islet cells to regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Ephrin-A5/EFNA5 also serves as a cognate/functional ligand for EPHA7, their interaction regulates brain development modulating cell-cell adhesion and repulsion.
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