EPH-related receptor tyrosine kinase ligand 1 (abbreviated as Ephrin-A1) also known as ligand of eph-related kinase 1 or EFNA1, is a member of the ephrin (EPH) family. The Eph family receptor interacting proteins (ephrins) are a family of proteins that serve as the ligands of the Eph receptor, which compose the largest known subfamily of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Ephrin-A1/EFNA1 and its Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases are expressed by cells of the SVZ. Ephrin subclasses are further distinguished by their mode of attachment to the plasma membrane: ephrin-A ligands bind EphA receptors and are anchored to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage, whereas ephrin-B ligands bind EphB receptors and are anchored via a transmembrane domain. An exception is the EphA4 receptor, which binds both subclasses of ephrins. Ephrin-A1 and one of its receptor EphA2 were expressed in xenograft endothelial cells and also tumor cells and play a role in human cancers, at least in part by influencing tumor neovascularization.
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