The vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), a new member of the VEGF family, activates VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, KDR) and VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3, Flt-4). It is believed to be a lymphangiogenic factor in adults, as well as, to a lesser degree, an angiogenic factor. Except for the endothelial cells, VEGF-C and its receptors were found to be expressed in cancerous cells themselves, raising the possibility that it may affect cancer growth not only by stimulating lymph/angiogenesis, but also by directly acting on receptors on the cancer cells. There are very few reports on the effect of VEGF-C on the basic functions of proliferation and apoptosis in malignant cells.
Mylona E, et al. Evaluation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C role in urothelial carcinomas of the bladder[J]. Anticancer research, 2006, 26(5A): 3567-3571.