Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to play a key role in the innate immune system particularly in inflammatory response against invading pathogens. Recent reports strongly indicate that they play important roles in cancer cells. Prostate cancer represents one of the most common cancer for which no cure is available once metastatic and androgen refractory. TLR3 has been recently suggested as a possible therapeutic target in some cancer cell lines. TLR3 expression and functionality was also studied in two human prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC3. It was reported that both cell lines express TLR3 and that the TLR3 agonist poly (I:C) activates mitogen-activated protein kinases and induces inhibition of proliferation as well as caspase-dependent apoptosis.
Paone A, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 triggers apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells through a PKC-α-dependent mechanism[J]. Carcinogenesis, 2008, 29(7): 1334-1342.