KIR3DL1 is a natural killer (NK) cell receptor that recognizes the Bw4 epitope of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules. KIR3DL1 is a polymorphic inhibitory receptor that modulates NK cell activity through interacting with HLA-A and HLA-B alleles that carry the Bw4 epitope. Amino acid polymorphisms throughout KIR3DL1 impact receptor surface expression and affinity for HLA. Genetic studies suggest that KIR3DL1 variation has functional significance in several disease states, including HIV infection. KIR3DL1 is a highly polymorphic inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) implicated in resistance to viral diseases such as AIDS. KIR3DL1 contains three Ig domains and is specific for MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules belonging to the HLA-Bw4 serogroup. The receptor's second and third Ig domains confer the Bw4 specificity.