HDAC4 (histone deacetylase 4), belongs to class II of the histone deacetylase/AcuC/APhA family. Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are a group of enzymes closely related to sirtuins. They catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from lysine residues in histones and non-histone proteins, resulting in transcriptional repression. In general, they do not act autonomously but as components of large multiprotein complexes, such as pRb-E2F and mSin3A, that mediate important transcription regulatory pathways. There are three classes of HDACs; classes 1, 2, and 4, which are closely related to Zn2+-dependent enzymes. HDACs are ubiquitously expressed and they can exist in the nucleus or cytosol. Their subcellular localization is affected by protein-protein interactions and by the class to which they belong. HDACs have a role in cell growth arrest, differentiation, and death and this has led to substantial interest in HDAC inhibitors as possible antineoplastic agents. HDAC4 possesses histone deacetylase activity and represses transcription when tethered to a promoter. It does not bind DNA directly but through transcription factors MEF2C and MEF2D. HDAC4 seems to interact in a multiprotein complex with RbAp48 and HDAC3.