Cystatin-SN, also known as Cystain-SA-I, Cystatin-1, Salivary cystatin-SA-1 and CST1, is a secreted protein which belongs to thecystatin family. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. Cystatin-SN / CST1 is expressed in submandibular and sublingual saliva but not in parotid saliva (at protein level). Cystatin-SN / CST1 is also expressed in saliva, tears, urine and seminal fluid. Human saliva appears to contain several cysteine proteinase inhibitors that are immunologically related to cystatin S but that differ in their specificity due to amino acid sequence differences. Human salivary cystatins include Cystatin-S, Cystatin-S1, Cystatin-S2, Cystatin- SA, Cystatin-SN, Cystatin-C and Cystatin-D. Cystatin-SN is a much better inhibitor of papain and dipeptidyl peptidase I than is cystatin-S, although both inhibit ficin equally well.