Pancreatic Cancer Biomarkers

Candidate pancreatic cancer biomarker
Protei Names Clinical Markers Human Swiss Prot # Comments Quality Products (Protein, antibody, ELISA kit & cDNA clone)
C-reactive protein   P02741 An inflammation indicator, increased CRP levels are considered to be an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and ischemic stroke. It is positively correlated with weight loss, anorexia-cachexia syndrome, extent of disease, and recurrence in advanced cancer. Its role as a predictor of survival has been shown in multiple myeloma, melanoma, lymphoma, ovarian, renal, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal tumors (Mahmoud and Rivera 2002). CRP/C-Reactive Protein
k-ras   P01116 An oncogene product found in approximately 90% of human pancreatic cancer (Sakuma et al. 2004). 22.5% of ovarian cancers expressed K-ras codon 12 point mutations (Semczuk et al. 2004). K-Ras
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1, p21   P38936 P21 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that blocks cell cycle progression. It is suppressed in malignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells(Fung et al. 2000), but overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (Hermanova et al. 2004). p21/WAF1/CDKN1A
Serum paraoxonase/ arylesterase 1   P27169 Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. It is decreased in gastric (Akcay et al. 2003b) and pancreatic (Akcay et al. 2003a) cancer patients. PON1
Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, TATI   P00995 It is secreted from pancreatic acinar cells into pancreatic juice. Its physiologic role has been thought to be the prevention of trypsin-catalyzed premature activation of zymogens within the pancreas and the pancreatic duct. Since it is also found in serum and in various normal and malignant tissues, it may have other roles as well. It is elevated in ovarian cancer (Medl et al. 1995). SPINK1
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha)   P01375 TNF-alpha is a proinflammatory protein detected in the serum of 36.5% of pancreatic cancer patients. Patients with metastatic disease showed significantly higher positive serum TNF-alpha compared to those with non-metastatic disease (Karayiannakis et al. 2001). TNF-alpha/TNFA
Trypsin   P07477 A hydrolytic enzyme whose activity was significantly lower in hepatocellular cancer tissue (Niewczas et al. 2002) but not altered in pancreatic, stomach, colon, rectal, lung or breast adenocarcinomas. Trypsin 2 / PRSS2
Trypsin   P07477 A hydrolytic enzyme whose activity was significantly lower in hepatocellular cancer tissue (Niewczas et al. 2002) but not altered in pancreatic, stomach, colon, rectal, lung or breast adenocarcinomas. Trypsin 2/PRSS2
Angiogenin ribonuclease RNase A family 5 yes P03950 An angiogenesis protein increased in pancreatic, stomach, kidney, invasive bladder, colorectal, breast, ovarian, endometrial, uterine, cancer and melanoma (Pavlov and Badet 2001).  
Angiogenin ribonuclease RNase A family 5   P03950 An angiogenesis protein increased in pancreatic, stomach, kidney, invasive bladder, colorectal, breast, ovarian, endometrial, uterine, cancer and melanoma (Pavlov and Badet 2001).  
CA 72–4 yes x A monoclonal antibody identified cancer antigen useful in the diagnosis of breast (Skates et al. 2004) and pancreatic cancer (Jiang et al. 2004).  
Cytokeratin 8   P05787 A cytoskeleton protein differentially expressed in pancreatic cancer (Silen et al. 1995).  
Pyruvate kinase, isozymes M1/M2   P14618 May play a role in metabolism, an isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase it is overexpressed by some tumor cells including pancreatic tumors (Ventrucci et al. 2004).  
synuclein-gamma   O7607 Synuclein-gamma plays a role in neurofilament network integrity. It is found in sera from 21 of 56 pancreatic patients (Li et al. 2004).  
Tropomyosin 1 alpha chain (Alpha-tropomyosin)   P09493 Tropomyosins are ubiquitous proteins of 35 to 45 kD associated with the actin filaments of myofibrils and stress fibers. It is decreased in pancreatic cancer (Alaiya et al. 2000).  
Pancreatic cancer biomarker background

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Biomarkers are needed to detect this cancer early during the disease development and for screening populations to identify those who are at risk. In cancer, "biomarker" refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker might be either a molecule secreted by a tumor or it can be a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology. A number of potential biomarkers have been identified for pancreatic cancer. These pancreatic cancer biomarkers can be assayed in non-invasively collected biofluids. These biomarkers need analytical and clinical validation so that they can be used for the purpose of screening and diagnosing pancreatic cancer and determining disease prognosis.

Pancreatic biomarkers have been assayed in biofluids (bile), fine needle tissue aspirate, tissues samples and formalin fixed samples, and stool. There is still a need for additional novel biomarkers which could be used for pancreatic cancer prognosis and response to therapy.

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