Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers

Candidate ovarian cancer biomarker
Protein Names Clinical Markers Human Swiss Prot # Comments Quality Products (Protein, antibody, ELISA kit & cDNA clone)
Apolipoprotein A1    P02647 Apolipoprotein A-I is the major apoprotein of HDL. ApoA-I also promotes efflux of cholesterol from cell. It is decreased ovarian cancer (Zhang et al. 2004). ApoA1
B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2    P10415 An inhibitor of apoptosis Bcl-2 maintains homeostasis in the immune system The differing effects of Bcl-2 expression on prognosis may be due to which cells are expressing the Bcl-2, immune cells or tumors. High expression in ovarian cancer (Herod et al. 1996) and non small lung cancer (Shibata et al. 2004) are associated with better prognosis whereas well differentiated tumors more likely to be Bcl-2 positive (Soda et al. 1999). BCL2 / Bcl-2
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor    P23560 It promotes the survival of neuronal populations and is differentially expressed in ovarian cancer (Mor et al. 2005). BDNF
CC chemokine 4, HCC-4    O15467 A chemotactic and myelosuppressive factor, differentially expressed in ovarian cancer (Mor et al. 2005). CCL16/HCC-4
Small inducible cytokine A21 (CCL21)    O00585 CCL21 inhibits hematopoiesis and stimulates chemotaxis. It is differentially expressed in ovarian cancer (Mor et al. 2005). CCL21/6Ckine
Chitinase-3 like protein 1, YKL-40    P36222 YKL-40 (cartilage gp-39), is a mammalian glycoprotein related in sequence to chitinases. Its function is unknown, but it is thought to be involved in tissue remodeling (De Ceuninck et al. 2001). YKL-40 may represent a novel marker for the detection of early-stage ovarian cancer (Dupont et al. 2004). CHI3L1/YKL40
C-reactive protein    P02741 An inflammation indicator, increased CRP levels are considered to be an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and ischemic stroke. It is positively correlated with weight loss, anorexia-cachexia syndrome, extent of disease, and recurrence in advanced cancer. Its role as a predictor of survival has been shown in multiple myeloma, melanoma, lymphoma, ovarian, renal, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal tumors (Mahmoud and Rivera 2002). CRP/C-Reactive Protein
Cystatin C    P01034 The most abundant extracellular inhibitor of cysteine proteases, it is produced in all organs. It is decreased in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (Strojan et al. 2004a) and in serum from ovarian cancer patients however, protein expression in ovarian cancer tissue is increased (Nishikawa et al. 2004). Cystatin C/CST3
Epidermal growth factor    P01133 Epidermal growth factor stimulates the growth of various epidermal and epithelial tissues, it is differentially expressed in ovarian cancer (Mor et al. 2005). EGF
Follistatin    P19883 An activin antagonist, follistatin inhibits the biosynthesis and secretion of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone. It is differentially expressed in ovarian cancer (Mor et al. 2005). Follistatin
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1    P24591 Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins carry insulin-like growth factor thereby regulating its activity. It is differentially expressed in ovarian cancer (Mor et al. 2005). IGFBP1/IGFBP-1 
Interleukin 1 alpha    P01583 An inflammation and innate immunity modulator, IL-1 alpha is increased in ovarian cancer (Kondera-Anasz et al. 2003). IL-1 alpha / IL-1F1 / IL1A
Interleukin 7    P13232 Il-7 stimulates hematopoiesis, it is increased in ovarian cancer (Xie et al. 2004). IL7 / interleukin-7
Inhibin yes various A glycoprotein hormone which regulates pituitary FSH, it is increased in postmenopausal ovarian cancer patients (Khosravi et al. 2004). Inhibin alpha/INHAInhibin beta A/INHBAInhibin beta B/INHBBInhibin beta C/INHBC;  Inhibin beta E/INHBE
Kallikrein 10 yes O43240 Kallikrein 10 suppresses breast and prostate cancer. It is increased in tissues and serum of patients with ovarian cancer (Yousef and Diamandis 2002). KLK10
Kallikrein 11 yes Q9UBX7 A serine protease that may be involved in tissue remodeling and cell migration, it is elevated in ovarian cancer (Yousef et al. 2003). KLK11/Kallikrein 11
Kallikrein 6 yes Q92876 A serine protease that may be useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of ovarian and prostate cancer (Yousef and Diamandis 2002). Increased plasma levels are also present in Alzheimer's disease (Diamandis et al. 2000). KLK6/Kallikrein 6/Neurosin
Kallikrein 7 yes P49862 Kallikrein 7 is a peptidase increased in ovarian cancer tissues (Yousef et al. 2003). KLK7/Kallikrein 7(PRSS6)
Kallikrein 8 yes O60259 Kallikrein 8 is a peptidase increased in ovarian cancer tissues (Yousef et al. 2003). KLK8/Kallikrein 8
k-ras    P01116 An oncogene product found in approximately 90% of human pancreatic cancer (Sakuma et al. 2004). 22.5% of ovarian cancers expressed K-ras codon 12 point mutations (Semczuk et al. 2004). K-Ras
Colony stimulating factor 1 (macrophage) yes P09603 A modulator that increases production of inflammatory leukocytes from the bone marrow, it is increased in ovarian cancer (Skates et al. 2004). M-CSF/CSF-1
transthyretin    P02766 A thyroid hormone binding protein decreased in ovarian cancer patients (Zhang et al. 2004). Prealbumin/Transthyretin
Antileukoproteinase 1, SLPI    P03973 An acid-stable proteinase inhibitor with strong affinity for trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as for neutrophil lysosomal elastase and cathepsin G, it is elevated in ovarian cancer patients (Tsukishiro et al. 2005). SLPI
Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, TATI    P00995 It is secreted from pancreatic acinar cells into pancreatic juice. Its physiologic role has been thought to be the prevention of trypsin-catalyzed premature activation of zymogens within the pancreas and the pancreatic duct. Since it is also found in serum and in various normal and malignant tissues, it may have other roles as well. It is elevated in ovarian cancer (Medl et al. 1995). SPINK1
Tetranectin    P05452 A plasma protein that has a specific binding affinity for sulfated polysaccharides and the kringle 4 of plasminogen, it is an independent prognostic factor in ovarian cancer (Begum et al. 2004). Tetranectin/CLEC3B
Transforming growth factor alpha    P01135 TGF-alpha, a potent mitogenic polypeptide, is present in most gallbladder carcinoma tissue (Lee 1998) and the plasma of ovarian cancer patients (Chien et al. 1997). TGF-alpha
TGF-beta receptor type III    Q03167 A TGF-beta binding protein, it may retain TGF-beta for the signaling receptors. It is differentially expressed in ovarian cancer (Mor et al. 2005). TGFBR3
Aldolase A    P04075 A housekeeping gene differentially expressed during development and increased in ovarian (Tomonaga et al. 2004) and renal cell cancer (Zhu et al. 1991).   
Angiogenin ribonuclease RNase A family 5 yes P03950 An angiogenesis protein increased in pancreatic, stomach, kidney, invasive bladder, colorectal, breast, ovarian, endometrial, uterine, cancer and melanoma (Pavlov and Badet 2001).   
Angiogenin ribonuclease RNase A family 5    P03950 An angiogenesis protein increased in pancreatic, stomach, kidney, invasive bladder, colorectal, breast, ovarian, endometrial, uterine, cancer and melanoma (Pavlov and Badet 2001).   
CA 125 yes x A monoclonal antibody identified cancer antigen that is Elevated in most clinically advanced ovarian carcinomas and which may be elevated prediagnosis CA 125 is a potentially useful for early detection. However, CA 125 is not always elevated in malignant cancer and can be elevated in benign ovarian tumors (McIntosh et al. 2004).   
Claudin-3    O15551 Claudins are involved in the formation of TJ strands upregulated in ovarian cancer (Lu et al. 2004).   
Claudin-4    O14493 Claudins are involved in the formation of TJ strands upregulated in ovarian cancer (Hibbs et al. 2004).   
Follicle-stimulating hormone yes P01225 Follicle-stimulating hormone enables ovarian folliculogenesis to the antral follicle stage and is essential for Sertoli cell proliferation and maintenance of sperm quality in the testis. It is decreased in testicular cancer (Madersbacher et al. 1998).   
Glucose-6- phosphate isomerase    P06744 A glycolytic enzyme elevated inovarian cancer (Yeshowardhana and Singh 1985).   
Kallikrein 14 (hK14)    Q9P0G3 Kallikrein 14 is a serine protease increased in 40% of ovarian cancer tissues and elevated in the serum of a proportion of patients with ovarian (65%) and breast (40%) cancers (Borgono et al. 2003).   
Kallikrein 5 yes Q9Y337 Kallikrein 5 is a peptidase increased in ovarian cancer tissues (Yousef et al. 2003).   
Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone receptor yes x A growth inhibiting tyrosine phosphatase found in 29 of 37 (78.4%) ovarian cancers and in 6 of 11 (54.5%) non-malignant human ovaries (Srkalovic et al. 1998).   
OVX1 yes x An ovarian cancer antigen antibody, OVX1 reacted to a majority of ovarian cancer tissues (17 of 20) and did not bind to normal ovarian tissues. (Xu et al. 1991).   
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6, fas    P25445 An apoptosis death receptor whose soluble form has been shown to be increased in serum from ovarian (Hefler et al. 2000), hepatocellular (Sacco et al. 2000), bladder (Mizutani et al. 1998), and colon cancer patients (Kushlinskii et al. 2001).   
Vitamin K dependent protein C    P04070 A vitamin K-dependent serine protease that regulates blood coagulation, it is differentially expressed in ovarian cancer (Mor et al. 2005).   
Ovarian cancer biomarker background

Most (more than 90%) ovarian cancers are classified as "epithelial" and are believed to arise from the surface (epithelium) of the ovary. However, some evidence suggests that the fallopian tube could also be the source of some ovarian cancers. Since the ovaries and tubes are closely related to each other, it is thought that these fallopian cancer cells can mimic ovarian cancer. Other types may arise from the egg cells (germ cell tumor) or supporting cells. Ovarian cancers are included in the category gynecologic cancer.

Symptoms of ovarian cancer are complex and often misdiagnosed as other diseases, but recent developments prescribe more well-defined clinical symptoms for a better diagnosis. Current treatment options, including surgical resection methods and various chemotherapies, have improved for late-stage ovarian tumors, but recent statistics demonstrate that less than a 10% improvement has been made for the 5-year survival rate during the past 35 years. These statistics suggest that more research efforts related to the discovery of ovarian cancer biomarkers are required.

Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is the most widely used biomarker for ovarian cancer. In fact, high serum CA125 is also seen in many benign gynecological diseases and other types of cancer. However, most works for nding proteomic markers concentrated on distinguishing between normal and tumorous epithelial ovarian cells. Even though this is an absolute requirement for diagnosis of ovarian cancer, it is not enough to nd the cause of di erent EOCs with distinctive morphological di erences. Thus, there is an evident need of biomarkers for analysing di erences between various EOCs.

Cancer biomarker related information
Cancer Biomarker related information
Quality Cancer Biomarker Reagents
Product Categories

Cytokines & Growth Factors
Proteins
Antibody
Cell Lysates
cDNA & qPCR Primer
ELISAs
Featured Products

Research Topics

Cancer
Immunology
Microbiology
Stem Cells
Cardiovascular
Neuroscience
Signaling
Epigenetics
Developmental Biology
Cell Biology
Influenza
Signaling Pathways

Featured Products

Influenza Research Reagents
Adhesion Molecule
Cancer Biomarker
CD Molecule
Cytokine
Growth Factor
Fc Receptor
Disease Therapeutic Target