Colon Cancer Biomarkers

Candidate colon cancer biomarker
Protein Names Clinical Markers Human Swiss Prot # Comments Quality Products (Protein, antibody, ELISA kit & cDNA clone)
Cathepsin B   P07858 A major cysteine protease involved in antigen degradation, it is overexpressed in tumors of the lung, prostate, colon, breast, stomach and esopha- geal adenocarcinoma (Hughes et al. 1998). Cathepsin B
CD44 antigen   P16070 Certain CD44 isoforms that regulate activation and migration of lymphocytes and macrophages may also enhance local growth and metastatic spread of tumor cells. Present in serum of normal individuals it is elevated in the serum from gastric and colon cancer patients, (Guo et al. 1994), Hodgkin's lymphoma patients(Lockhart et al. 1999), and acute leukemia patients (Yokota et al. 1999). CD44
Complement component 7   P10643 An effector of innate and adaptive immunity, its mRNA is decreased in oesophageal, colon and kidney cancers (Oka et al. 2001). Complement component 7
Neutrophil defensin 1   P59665 An antimicrobial protein secreted by neutrophils increased in colon cancer patients (Albrethsen et al. 2005). Concentration given is for all three defensins together 1,2 & 3. DEFA1
Endothelin 1 yes P05305 Endothelin is a vasoconstrictor significantly elevated in 80% of primary human colon cancers (Kim et al. 2004). EDN1
Secreted phosphoprotein 1, osteopontin   P10451 An extracellular matrix protein of pleiotropic properties including inflammation modulator, it is increased in prostate, colon, breast and lung cancer (Fedarko et al. 2001). Osteopontin/SPP1/ETA-1
Plasminogen (Contains Angiostatin)   P00747 The precursor to angiostatin, a potent angiogenesis inhibitor, it is increased in patients with malignant neoplasm of stomach, colon, lung, bladder, breast. renal pelvis, and prostate but decreased in patients with malignant neoplasm of biliary tree, pancrease, cervix uteri, kidney except pelvis, and thyroid (Chang Kyou et al. 2004). tPA
Trypsin   P07477 A hydrolytic enzyme whose activity was significantly lower in hepatocellular cancer tissue (Niewczas et al. 2002) but not altered in pancreatic, stomach, colon, rectal, lung or breast adenocarcinomas. Trypsin 2 / PRSS2
Trypsin   P07477 A hydrolytic enzyme whose activity was significantly lower in hepatocellular cancer tissue (Niewczas et al. 2002) but not altered in pancreatic, stomach, colon, rectal, lung or breast adenocarcinomas. Trypsin 2/PRSS2
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2   P35968 The VEGF-flk-1 system takes part in tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, and apoptosis in colon liver metastases (Cheng et al. 2004). VEGFR2/Flk-1/CD309/KDR
Bone sialoprotein II   P21815 A noncollagenous bone protein increased in prostate, colon, and breast cancer (Fedarko et al. 2001).  
Geminin   O75496 Geminin is a potent inhibitor of origin assembly and re-replication in multicellular eukaryotes and is a negative regulator of DNA replication during the cell cycle. Geminin expression is increased in 56% and of colon cancers, 58% of rectal cancers, and 60% of human primary breast cancers (Montanari et al. 2005).  
Neutrophil defensin 3   P59666 An antimicrobial protein secreted by neutrophils increased in colon cancer patients (Albrethsen et al. 2005). Concentration given is for all three defensins together 1,2 & 3.  
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6, fas   P25445 An apoptosis death receptor whose soluble form has been shown to be increased in serum from ovarian (Hefler et al. 2000), hepatocellular (Sacco et al. 2000), bladder (Mizutani et al. 1998), and colon cancer patients (Kushlinskii et al. 2001).  
Colon cancer biomarker background

Colon cancer, commonly known as colorectal cancer or bowel cancer, is a cancer from uncontrolled cell growth in the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine), or in the appendix. Genetic analysis shows that colon and rectal tumours are essentially genetically the same cancer.

Advances in molecular technology have resulted in the discovery of many putative biomarkers relevant to colon cancer. Most potential colon cancer biomarkers are in the discovery phase waiting to undergo clinical validation. Hypermethylation of the plasma septin-9 gene shows promise as a nonstool-based screening tool. Hypermethylation of the DYPD gene (encodes the enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase) and variation of the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A1) gene have predictive value for side effects and the efficacy of 5-fluoruracil and irinotecan, respectively. Mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry is able to predict response to 5-fluorouracil, and the KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene) and B-RAF (v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) somatic gene mutation status can predict the response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Recent advances indicate that the widespread use of colon cancer biomarkers may herald the next major advance in the diagnosis and management of colon cancer.

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