Like other TGF-beta superfamily receptors members, activin receptor, transduces signals through type I and II receptor serine/threonine kinases. The binding of activins to activin type IIA (ActRIIA) or type IIB (ActRIIB) receptors induces the recruitment and phosphorylation of an activin type I receptor (ALK4 and/or ALK7), which then phosphorylates the Smad 2 and Smad 3 intracellular signaling proteins.
Activin receptor and other TGF-beta superfamily receptors members signaling through Smad 2 and 3 were found to maintain human embryonic stem cell (hESC) pluripotency and self-renewal and that blocking activin signaling resulted in hESC differentiation.
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|ALK-2/ACVR1||ALK-4 / ACVR1B|