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H5N3 (Influenza A) Protein, Antibody, Gene cDNA Clone & ELISA

H5N3 (Influenza A ) Background

Influenza (flu) is a respiratory infection in mammals and birds. It is caused by an RNA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is divided into three main types (Influenza A, Influenza B, and Influenza C), which are distinguished by differences in two major internal proteins (hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA)). Influenza virus type A is found in a wide variety of bird and mammal species and can undergo major shifts in immunological properties. Influenza B is largely confined to humans and is an important cause of morbidity. Little is known about Influenza C, which is not an important source of morbidity.

Influenza A is further divided into subtypes based on differences in the membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), which are the most important targets for the immune system. The notation HhNn is used to refer to the subtype comprising the hth discovered Hemagglutinin (HA) protein and the nth discovered neuraminidase (NA) protein. The influenza viral hemagglutinin (HA) is a single-pass type I integral membrane glycoprotein. It is a homo trimer containing a central α helix coil and three spherical heads with the sialic acid binding sites. The influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) protein is a second major surface antigen of the virion. Neuraminidase cleaves terminal sialic acid from glycoproteins or glycolipids, and promotes influenza virus release from infected cells and facilitates virus spread within the respiratory tract.

H5N3 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus, and is low pathogenic. H5N3 was identified in Quebec in August 2005 and in Sweden in October 2005. In 2009, H5N3 virus was identified at a La Garnache farm in France in late January. 90 birds were found dead between 29 January 2009 and 31 January 2009. Another outbreak of H5N3 influenza A virus has been reported to the OIE by the Romanian authorities in a group of animals (17 ducks and 2 geese) introduced as sentinel birds in the Danube Delta. These animals were infected after being in contact with wild birds in the Delta.