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H3N2 (Influenza A) Protein, Antibody, Gene cDNA Clone & ELISA Kit

H3N2 (Influenza A ) Background

H3N2 is a subtype of the influenza virus A. H3N2 Viruses can infect birds and mammals. In birds, humans, and pigs, the virus has mutated into many strains. By reassortment, H3N2 exchanges genes for internal proteins with other influenza subtypes. It is an important cause of human influenza.

H3N2 is increasingly abundant in seasonal influenza, which kills an estimated 36,000 people in the United States each year. Each seasonal H3N2 flu is slightly different from one of last year's H3N2 variants. Seasonal influenza viruses flow out of overlapping epidemics in East and Southeast Asia, then trickle around the globe before dying off.

Flu vaccines are based on predicting which mutants of H1N1, H3N2, H1N2, and influenza B will proliferate in the next season. Separate vaccines are developed for the northern and southern hemispheres in preparation for their annual epidemics. In the tropics, influenza shows no clear seasonality. In the past ten years, H3N2 has tended to dominate in prevalence over H1N1, H1N2, and influenza B. Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in H3N2 has increased from 1% in 1994 to 12% in 2003 to 91% in 2005.

Protection mechanism of influenza vaccine is well established to be neutralizing antibody (polyclonal human antibody) raised against influenza viral protein antigen such as the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) protein antigen. Neutralizing antibody can block virus binding to host cells, block viral entry into host cells, and kill infected host cells. Recombinant monoclonal antibody (Mab, mouse monoclonal antibody, rabbit monoclonal antibody, chimeric monoclonal antibody, and humanized monoclonal antibody) raised against the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen or cloned from human B-cells (human monoclonal antibody) have shown to be promising anti-influenza infection product candidates.

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