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H1N2 (Influenza A) Protein, Antibody, Gene cDNA Clone & ELISA Kit

H1N2 (Influenza A) Molecules

H1N2 (Influenza A) Strains

H1N2 (Influenza A ) Background

Influenza (flu) is a respiratory infection in mammals and birds. It is caused by an RNA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is divided into three main types (Influenza A, Influenza B, and Influenza C), which are distinguished by differences in two major internal proteins (hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA)). Influenza virus type A is found in a wide variety of bird and mammal species and can undergo major shifts in immunological properties. Influenza B is largely confined to humans and is an important cause of morbidity. Little is known about Influenza C, which is not an important source of morbidity.

Influenza A is further divided into subtypes based on differences in the membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), which are the most important targets for the immune system. The notation HhNn is used to refer to the subtype comprising the hth discovered Hemagglutinin (HA) protein and the nth discovered neuraminidase (NA) protein. The influenza viral hemagglutinin (HA) is a single-pass type I integral membrane glycoprotein. It is a homo trimer containing a central α helix coil and three spherical heads with the sialic acid binding sites. The influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) protein is a second major surface antigen of the virion. Neuraminidase cleaves terminal sialic acid from glycoproteins or glycolipids, and promotes influenza virus release from infected cells and facilitates virus spread within the respiratory tract.

H1N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus. H1N1 together with H1N2 and H3N2, are the only known Influenza A virus subtypes currently circulating among humans. H1N2 virus was identified as early as 1989. Between December 1988 and March 1989, 19 influenza A(H1N2) viruses were identified in 6 cities in China, but the virus did not spread further. H1N2 was identified during the 2001-2002 flu season in several countries of northern hemisphere. On February 6, 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) in the United Kingdom reported the identification H1N2 influenza A virus from humans in the UK, Israel, and Egypt. The new H1N2 strain appears to have resulted from the reassortment of the genes of influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) subtypes. The hemagglutinin protein of the H1N2 influenza A virus is similar to that of the H1N1 viruses, and the neuraminidase protein is similar to that of the H3N2 viruses.