Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 17 (CXCL17) is the latest member of the chemokine family. CXCL17 is a potential oncogene and promising therapeutic target, is an independent biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer, and can promote proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. CXCL17 is expressed in a variety of cancers and promotes tumor progression by recruiting myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). CXCL17 attenuates IMQ-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation by recruiting MDSCs and Tregs, which may be important for regulating excessive inflammation in psoriasis skin. CXCL17 production correlated with adverse immune infiltration and might be an important target for anti-HCC therapies. CXCL17 is a major regulator of mucosal inflammatory responses.