The commonly type of ELISA kit is the sandwich ELISA. Sandwich ELISAs involve attachment of a capture antibody to a solid phase support. Samples containing known or unknown antigen are then added in a matrix or buffer that will minimize attachment to the solid phase. An enzyme-labeled antibody is then added for detection.
The ELISA method is a benchmark for quantitation of pathological antigens and there are indeed many variations to this method. ELISAs are adaptable to high-throughput screening because results are rapid, consistent and relatively easy to analyze. The best results have been obtained with the sandwich format, utilizing highly purified, prematched capture and detector antibodies. The resulting signal provides data which is very sensitive and highly specific.