Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), also known as TNF, TNFA or TNFSF2, is the prototypic cytokine of the TNF superfamily, and is a multifunctional molecule involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. Two receptors, TNF-R1 (TNF receptor type 1; CD12a; p55/6) and TNF-R2 (TNF receptor type 2; CD12b; p75/8), bind to TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha protein is produced mainly by macrophages, and large amounts of this cytokine are released in response to lipopolysaccharide, other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1). TNF-alpha is involved in fighting against the tumorigenesis, thus, is regarded as a molecular insight in cancer treatment.
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