Indoleamine 2,3‑dioxygenase/IDO Immune Checkpoint Pathway

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/IDO Immune Checkpoint Pathway: Description

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) was specifically induced in corneal endothelial cells and is among the 10 most highly expressed enzymes in the whole genome. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/IDO is interferon (IFN) inducible as is the intracellular haem enzyme which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the degradation of tryptophan.
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/IDO Immune Checkpoint Pathway functions as an antimicrobial agent that acts against a wide range of intracellular pathogens including viruses and protozoans. However, the antiviral role of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/IDO has been challenged by the results of a study on an infectious disease model. On the other hand, Indoleamine 2,3‑dioxygenase/IDO Immune Checkpoint Pathway can induce regulatory T cells or T-cell anergy as has been observed in HIV. Because of its strong regulatory property, an Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/IDO inhibitor has been developed as a promising anticancer drug. Clinical trials are being conducted to determine whether it can reduce tumour tolerance in conjunction with the anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody for melanomas. Thus, Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/IDO might have distinctive activities of limiting inflammatory responses, which are used by tumour cells to promote their own survival or to prevent the activation of antitumour responses.

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/IDO Immune Checkpoint Pathway: Reference

David H. Munn et al. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tumor-induced tolerance.J Clin Invest. 2007 May 1; 117(5): 1147–1154.

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/IDO Immune Checkpoint Pathway: Relatives

Co-inhibitory immune checkpoint pathways Co-stimulatory immune checkpoint pathways
PD1 & PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway CD40 & CD40L immune checkpoint pathway
CTLA-4 & CD80 (CD86) immune checkpoint pathway OX40 & OX40L immune checkpoint pathway
B7-H3 / CD276 immune checkpoint pathway HVEM & LIGHT immune checkpoint pathway
B7-H4 / B7S1 / B7x immune checkpoint pathway CD28 & CD80 (CD86) immune checkpoint pathway
HVEM & BTLA immune checkpoint pathway GITR & GITR Ligand immune checkpoint pathway
HVEM & CD160 immune checkpoint pathway CD27 & CD70 immune checkpoint pathway
LAG3 / CD223 / Lymphocyte activation gene 3 immune checkpoint pathway 4-1BB & 4-1BBL immune checkpoint pathway
Galectin-9 & TIM-3 immune checkpoint pathway ICOS & ICOS Ligand immune checkpoint pathway
VISTA / B7-H5 / GI24 immune checkpoint pathway CD266 & CD155 immune checkpoint pathway
CEACAM1 / CD66a immune checkpoint pathway  
SIRP alpha & CD47 immune checkpoint pathway  
2B4 & CD48 immune checkpoint pathway  
TIGIT & CD155 immune checkpoint pathway  
Immune Checkpoint
What is immune checkpoint?
Immune checkpoint targets
Immune checkpoint blockade: blocking antibodies
Immune checkpoint detection: antibodies
Immune checkpoint proteins
Immune checkpoint inhibitors
Immune checkpoint therapy
Immune checkpoint pathways
PD1 / PDCD1 / CD279 immune checkpoint
VISTA / B7-H5 / GI24 immune checkpoint