Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/IDO Immune Checkpoint Pathway: Description
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) was specifically induced in corneal endothelial cells and is among the 10 most highly expressed enzymes in the whole genome. Indoleamine 2,3‑dioxygenase/IDO is interferon (IFN) inducible as is the intracellular haem enzyme which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the degradation of tryptophan.
Indoleamine 2,3‑dioxygenase/IDO Immune Checkpoint Pathway functions as an antimicrobial agent that acts against a wide range of intracellular pathogens including viruses and protozoans. However, the antiviral role of Indoleamine 2,3‑dioxygenase/IDO has been challenged by the results of a study on an infectious disease model. On the other hand, Indoleamine 2,3‑dioxygenase/IDO Immune Checkpoint Pathway can induce regulatory T cells or T-cell anergy as has been observed in HIV. Because of its strong regulatory property, an Indoleamine 2,3‑dioxygenase/IDO inhibitor has been developed as a promising anticancer drug. Clinical trials are being conducted to determine whether it can reduce tumour tolerance in conjunction with the anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody for melanomas. Thus, Indoleamine 2,3‑dioxygenase/IDO might have distinctive activities of limiting inflammatory responses, which are used by tumour cells to promote their own survival or to prevent the activation of antitumour responses.
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/IDO Immune Checkpoint Pathway: Reference
David H. Munn et al. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tumor-induced tolerance.J Clin Invest. 2007 May 1; 117(5): 1147–1154.
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/IDO Immune Checkpoint Pathway: Relatives
|Co-inhibitory immune checkpoint pathways||Co-stimulatory immune checkpoint pathways|
|PD1 & PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway||CD40 & CD40L immune checkpoint pathway|
|CTLA-4 & CD80 (CD86) immune checkpoint pathway||OX40 & OX40L immune checkpoint pathway|
|B7-H3 / CD276 immune checkpoint pathway||HVEM & LIGHT immune checkpoint pathway|
|B7-H4 / B7S1 / B7x immune checkpoint pathway||CD28 & CD80 (CD86) immune checkpoint pathway|
|HVEM & BTLA immune checkpoint pathway||GITR & GITR Ligand immune checkpoint pathway|
|HVEM & CD160 immune checkpoint pathway||CD27 & CD70 immune checkpoint pathway|
|LAG3 / CD223 / Lymphocyte activation gene 3 immune checkpoint pathway||4-1BB & 4-1BBL immune checkpoint pathway|
|Galectin-9 & TIM-3 immune checkpoint pathway||ICOS & ICOS Ligand immune checkpoint pathway|
|VISTA / B7-H5 / GI24 immune checkpoint pathway||CD266 & CD155 immune checkpoint pathway|
|CEACAM1 / CD66a immune checkpoint pathway|
|SIRP alpha & CD47 immune checkpoint pathway|
|2B4 & CD48 immune checkpoint pathway|
|TIGIT & CD155 immune checkpoint pathway|