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Immune Checkpoint Targets

Co-stimulatory Immune Checkpoint Targets

CD155 / PVR CD226 / DNAM-1 CD137 / 4-1BB
CD40 / TNFRSF5 CD40L / CD154 / TNFSF5 4-1BBL / CD137L
OX40 / CD134 OX-40L / TNFSF4 / CD252 CD27
HVEM / TNFRSF14 TNFSF14 / LIGHT / CD258 CD70 / CD27L / TNFSF7
CD28 / TP44 CD80 / B7-1 CD86 / B7-2
GITR / TNFRSF18 GITR Ligand/TNFSF18  
ICOS / AILIM / CD278 ICOS Ligand / B7-H2  

Co-inhibitory Immune Checkpoint Targets

PD1 / PDCD1 / CD279 PD-L1 / B7-H1 / CD274 PD-L2 / B7-DC / CD273
CTLA-4 / CD152 CD80 / B7-1 CD86 / B7-2
B7-H3 / CD276 B7-H4 / B7S1 / B7x VISTA / B7-H5 / GI24
HVEM / TNFRSF14 BTLA CD160
LAG3 / CD223 / Lymphocyte activation gene 3 CEACAM1 / CD66a Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/IDO
Galectin-9 / LGALS9 TIM-3 / HAVCR2 2B4 / CD244
SIRP alpha / CD172a CD47 CD48 / SLAMF2
TIGIT / VSTM3 CD155 / PVR  

Immune Checkpoint Targets: PD1

PD1 / PDCD1 / CD279, a type 1 transmembrane protein of the Ig superfamily, consists of an extracellular N-terminal IgV-like domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail engaging in inhibitory signal transmission. Being expressed on activated immune cell types including T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, NKT cells, dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and host tissues, the expression on effector T cells is associated with constitutive antigen exposure and thus PD1 / PDCD1 / CD279 has become a marker of T cell unresponsiveness or exhaustion.

Immune Checkpoint Targets: PD-L1

PD1 / PDCD1 / CD279 has two known ligands, PD-L1 / B7-H1 / CD274 and PD-L2 / B7-DC / CD273, which belong to B7 family. PD-L1 / B7-H1 / CD274 is the major ligand and expressed on hematopoietic cells including T cells, B cells, DCs, macrophages and mast cells as well as many nonhematopoietic cells including endothelial cells and numerous epithelial cells. PD-L1 / B7-H1 / CD274 is expressed on many tumors including cancers developing in various organs such as head and neck, lung, stomach, colon, pancreas, breast, kidney, bladder, ovary, cervix, as well as melanoma, glioblastoma, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and various leukemias, thereby inhibits effective anti-tumor immune responses mediated by PD1 / PDCD1 / CD279 -expressed T cells.

Immune Checkpoint Targets: CD27

CD27 is a lymphocyte-specific member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) family, expression of which is tightly regulated during T-cell ontogeny. Recently, the ligand for CD27 was identified and was shown to be identical to CD70, a novel member of the TNF family. Functional experiments show that the interaction between CD27 and its ligand generates a co-stimulatory signal for T-cell activation.

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