AKT (AK mouse plus Transforming or Thymoma) is a frequent oncogene expressed in most tissues which includes three isoforms AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3. Hyperactivation of AKT signaling is a central key in many human cancer progressions, through modulating angiogenesis, tumor growth, and cell migration, invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Among all three isoforms, AKT2 is most related to cancer cell invasion, metastasis, and survival. Amplification and overexpression of AKT2 have been shown in many cancers. Accumulating evidence shows the potential role of different miRNA involvements in cancer progression by activating or suppressing AKT2 expression. The AKT2/NAB1/SPK1 pathway is a novel regulating factor of macrophage migration and cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction. The novel mechanism of the AKT2-PKM2-STAT3/NF-kappaB axis in the regulation of ovarian cancer progression, that both AKT2 and PKM2 may be potential targets for the treatment of ovarian cancer. AKT1 and AKT2, the AKT isoforms that are highly expressed in skeletal muscle, have distinct and overlapping functions, with AKT2 more important for insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism. In adipocytes, AKT2 versus AKT1 has greater susceptibility for insulin-mediated redistribution from cytosolic to membrane localization, and insulin also causes subcellular redistribution of AKT Substrate of 16 kDa (AS16), an AKT2 substrate and crucial mediator of insulin-stimulated glucose transport.
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