HER2 Targeted Therapy

HER2 Targeted Therapy: Introduction

HER2 belongs to a family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that includes EGFR/ERBB1, HER2/ERBB2/NEU, HER3/ERBB3, and HER4/ERBB4. The gene for HER2 is located on chromosome 17 and has been found to be amplified with an increased copy number in several cancers. Amplification of HER2 has been found to promote tumorigenesis and to be involved in the pathogenesis of several human cancers.
To date, no ligand has been identified for HER2. However, HER2 appears to be the preferential dimerization partner for all members of the ERBB family. The binding of ligand followed by HER2 hetero-dimerization results in activation of HER2 tyrosine kinase activity. Activated HER2 then phosphorylates its substrates, leading to activation of multiple downstream pathways within the cell, including the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, which is involved in cell survival, and the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, which is involved in cell proliferation.

HER2 Targeted Therapy: Breast Cancer

Amplification of the HER2 gene and/or overexpression at the messenger RNA or protein level occurs in about 20% of patients with early stage breast cancer. Before the advent of HER2-directed therapies, this increased level of HER2 was associated with high recurrence rates and increased mortality in patients. The advent of HER2-directed therapies has significantly improved the outlook for patients with HER2-positive early stage breast cancer. Trials to define, refine and optimize the use of the two approved HER2-targeted agents (trastuzumab and lapatinib) in patients with HER2-positive early stage breast cancer are ongoing now.

HER2 Targeted Therapy: Colorectal Cancer

Although chemotherapy has shown to be an efficient strategy for adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer, it is still not capable of preventing recurrence in all patients. Therefore there is numerous ongoing research for alternative compounds to be used as adjuvant therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and other biologicals, targeting tumor-associated proteins and blocking essential processes of the tumor, are extensively studied. A crucial step in this process is the identification of tumor specific proteins that can be targeted by these compounds. One of these targets is HER2, which is primarily associated with breast cancer.

HER2 Targeted Therapy: Ovarian Cancer

Because symptoms are usually absent, 70 to 80% of patients with ovarian cancer will have advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Despite an initial good response to first-line combination chemotherapy (taxane/platinum), relapses are frequent because of acquired chemoresistance. The use of new targeted therapies that are potentially effective in a subset of patients may be of great value.

Targeted Therapy
What is Targeted Therapy
Targeted Therapy: Targets
Targeted Therapy for Cancer
Targeted Therapy for Kidney Cancer
Targeted Therapy for Liver Cancer
Colorectal Cancer Targeted Therapy
What is Targeted Therapy for Cancer
Targeted Therapy for Leukemia
Targeted Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer
Prostate Cancer Targeted Therapy
Targeted Therapy for Ovarian Cancer
Melanoma Targeted Therapy
Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer
Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer
EGFR Targeted Therapy
EGFR Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer
EGFR Targeted Therapy for Colorectal Cancer
EGFR Targeted Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer
EGFR Targeted Therapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
EGFR Targeted Therapy for Ovarian Cancer
EGFR Targeted Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer
HER2 Targeted Therapy
HER2 Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer
HER2 Targeted Therapy for Colorectal Cancer
Her2 targeted therapy for Ovarian cancer
VEGF Targeted Therapy
VEGF Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer
VEGF Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer
VEGF Targeted Therapy for Prostate Cancer
VEGF Targeted Therapy for Colorectal Cancer
BRAF Targeted Therapy
BRAF Targeted Therapy for Melanoma
BRAF Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer
ALK Targeted Therapy
ALK Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer
ALK Targeted Therapy for Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma
Immune Checkpoint Targeted Therapy
Targeted Therapy Drugs
Targeted Therapy Drugs: Elotuzumab
Targeted Therapy Drugs: Necitumumab
Targeted Therapy Drugs: Daratumumab
Targeted Therapy Drugs: Ramucirumab
Targeted Therapy Drugs: Trastuzumab
Targeted Therapy Drugs: Vemurafenib
Targeted Therapy Drugs: Crizotinib
The Differences between Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy
Side Effects of Targeted Therapy
Oral Targeted Therapy
Targeted Therapy Resistance
How does Targeted Therapy Work