|IL-1||VCAM1||CD2||B-lymphocyte stimulator protein (BLyS)|
HSP60 Implicated in mitochondrial protein import and macromolecular assembly. May facilitate the correct folding of imported proteins. May also prevent misfolding and promote the refolding and proper assembly of unfolded polypeptides generated under stress conditions in the mitochondrial matrix. Interacts with HRAS. Interacts with HBV protein X and HTLV-1 protein p40tax. Belongs to the chaperonin (HSP60) family. some new research has indicated that HSP60 possibly plays a role in a "danger signal cascade" immune response. There is also mounting evidence that it plays a role in autoimmune disease.
GAD65 is the product of a gene located on Chromosome 10 with containing 585 aminoacids. In T1D autoimmunity, only GAD65 is antigenic despite the higher expression of GAD67 in islet beta cells. Interestingly, in stiff man syndrome, the other well documented case of GAD antigenicity, GAD65 is also the major autoantigen. The differences in the antigenicity of the GAD isoforms merits scrutiny, particularly in view of the potential of GAD 65 to be used in immunotherapies.
Towns R et al. GAD65 autoantibodies and its role as biomarker of Type 1 diabetes and Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). Drugs of the future. 2011;36(11):847.
Hansen JJ et al. (January 2003). "Genomic structure of the human mitochondrial chaperonin genes: HSP60 and HSP10 are localised head to head on chromosome 2 separated by a bidirectional promoter". Hum. Genet. 112 (1): 71–7.