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轉化生長因數(TGF- beta)超家族

TGF-beta superfamily is comprised of a large group of proteins, including the activin/inhibin family, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth differentiation factors (GDFs), the TGF-beta subfamily, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family. TGF-beta superfamily proteins have been discovered in a variety of species, including invertebrates as well as vertebrates. TGF-beta superfamily members play fundamental roles in the regulation of various biological processes such as growth, development, tissue homeostasis and regulation of the immune system.

Sino biological offers a comprehensive set of tools for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily related studies, including recombinant proteins, antibodies (rabbit mAbs, mouse mAbs, and rabbit pAbs), ELISA kits, and ORF cDNA clones.

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    轉化生長因數(TGF- beta)超家族 Background

    cytokine receptor

    TGF-beta Information

    The transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is the first member of the TGF-beta superfamily that is comprised of a large group of proteins, including the activin/inhibin family, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth differentiation factors (GDFs) and the TGF-beta subfamily. Members of the TGF-beta superfamily interact with a conserved family of cell surface serine/threonine-specific protein kinase receptors to activate Smad signaling cascades.

    Another subfamily of the TGF-beta superfamily is GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) family. The GDNF family ligands share a similar conformation with other members of the TGF-beta superfamily. However, proteins of the GDNF family do not signal through TGF-beta receptors. They signal through a multimolecular protein complex that includes the RET receptor tyrosine kinase and receptors of the GFR-alpha family.

    TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines bind to receptors at the cell surface, and recruit two type I receptors and two type II receptors forming a tetrameric complex. Activated TGF-beta superfamily receptors induce a series of phosphorylation cascade, from receptor phosphorylation to subsequent phosphorylation and activation of downstream signal transducer R-Smads (receptor-activated Smads). Phosphorylated R-Smads form a heteroligomeric (often trimeric) complex with Smad4 (Co-Smad). The Smad complex is imported into the nucleus and regulates the expression of target genes by direct binding to the target gene promoter and/or through the interaction with transcriptional cofactors in a cell-type-specific manner. TGF-beta superfamily signaling controls numerous cellular responses from cell proliferation, differentiation and extracellular matrix remodelling to embryonic development in species ranging from worms to mammals.

    Besides the canonical Smad-mediated TGF-beta signaling pathway, it has been shown that TGF-beta superfamily ligands can also regulate cellular or physiological processes through non-canonical pathways by the activation of other signaling molecules [e.g. Akt, MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), and Src] independent of Smad proteins, which amplifies the complexity of TGF-beta signaling.

    轉化生長因數(TGF- beta)超家族 References

      1. Kollias HD, et al. (2008) Transforming growth factor-beta and myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol. 104(3):579-87.
      2. Trombly DJ, et al. (2009) Roles for transforming growth factor beta superfamily proteins in early folliculogenesis. Semin Reprod Med. 27(1):14-23.
      3. Lebrun JJ. (2009) Activin, TGF-beta and menin in pituitary tumorigenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 668:69-78.
      4. Toonkel RL, et al. (2010) Tgf-beta signaling pathway in lung adenocarcinoma invasion. J Thorac Oncol. 5(2):153-7.
      5. Pardali E, et al. (2010) Signaling by members of the TGF-beta family in vascular morphogenesis and disease. Trends Cell Biol. 20(9):556-67.
      6. Liu T, et al. (2010) Regulation of TGF-beta signalling by protein phosphatases. Biochem J. 430(2):191-8.