Cytokines are a large group of proteins, peptides or glycoproteins that are secreted by specific cells of immune system. Cytokines are a category of signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation and hematopoiesis.
Cytokine is a general name; other names are defined based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, or target of action. Cytokines and their receptors exhibit very high affinity for each other. Because of this high affinity, picomolar concentrations of cytokines can mediate a biological effect. Read more
Cytokines are made by many cell populations, but the predominant producers are helper T cells (Th) and macrophages. Cytokines may be produced in and by peripheral nerve tissue during physiological and pathological processes by resident and recruited macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, and Schwann cells.
It is common for different cell types to secrete the same cytokine or for a single cytokine to act on several different cell types (pleiotropy). Cytokines are redundant in their activity, meaning similar functions can be stimulated by different cytokines. Read more
Cytokines generally function as intercellular messenger molecules that evoke particular biological activities after binding to a receptor on a responsive target cell. Cytokines are especially important in the immune system; cytokines modulate the balance humoral andcell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations. Some cytokines enhance or inhibit the action of other cytokines in complex ways.
They are different from hormones, which are also important cell signaling molecules, in that hormones circulate in much lower concentrations. Read more
Cytokines are a category of signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and many other cellular processes, forming a cytokine network. Cytokines may act on the cells that secrete them, on nearby cells , or in some instances on distant cells.
Cytokines were initially identified as products of immune cells that act as mediators and regulators of immune processes but many cytokines are now known to be produced by cells other than immune cells and they can have effects on non-immune cells as well. Read more
Inflammation is mediated by a variety of soluble factors, including a group of secreted polypeptides known as cytokines. Inflammatory cytokines can be divided into two groups: those involved in acute inflammation and those responsible.Several cytokines play key roles in mediating acute inflammatory reactions, namely IL-1, TNF-a, IL-6, IL-11, IL-8 and other chemokines, GCSF, and GM-CSF.
The cytokines known to mediate chronic inflammatory processes can be divided into those participating in humoral inflammation and those contributing to cellular inflammation. Read more
There are many types of Cytokines, including chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, tumour necrosis factor but generally not hormones or growth factors (despite some terminologic overlap). All those types of cytokines are produced by a broad range of cells, including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells; a given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell. Read more
Cytokines regulate a number of physiological and pathological process including innate immunity, acquired immunity and a plethora of inflammatory responses. Cytokines are produced from various sources during the effector phases of natural and acquired immune responses and regulate immune and inflammatory responses. Read more
There are many journals that publish articles and research outcomes about cytokines. Many journals focus on cytokines and growth factor research.
Cytokine journal: Cytokines
Cytokine journal: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research (JICR)
Cytokine journal: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews Read more